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SAP KB Knowledge Base

SAP Knowledge Base Articles (The SAP how-to documents)

SAP posee una amplia base de datos. No solo un repositorio "central" donde presenta de forma ordenada todos sus módulos y sub-aplicaciones, si no que también cuenta con bases de datos separadas de acuerdo a cada versión de SAP. 


Ésto último puede llegar a ser problemático si estamos buscando información para un problema de prioridad alta, ya que muchas veces google nos devuelve una respuesta que es de una versión (o realease) antigua de SAP, cuyo comportamiento en el sistema antes era de una forma, y ahora es de otra.



Los artículos del denominado "SAP Knowledge Base" son documentos de soporte para consulta diaria por parte de los consultores a quienes le surgen dudas o preguntas en su trabajo bajo el sistema SAP. 
Antes, teníamos documentos aparte (fuera del KB) denominados "SAP BusinessObjects Notes", y ahora SAP ha cambiado su ubicación y lo ha colocado dentro de SAP KB, todo está dentro de SAP Knowledge Base.
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SAP HANA

Qué es SAP HANA

HANA es "High-Performance ANalytic Appliance".
Para encontrar más info sobre HANA, debemos profundizar la categoría "In-Memory" de SAP SCN.

En forosap.com amplían:
SAP HANA trae el poder de procesamiento de datos in-memory - aprovechando los avances en la memoria principal, la tecnología de procesador y el conocimiento técnico de las aplicaciones - para obtener beneficios sin precedentes para la analítica y una nueva categoría de aplicaciones. La aplicación SAP BusinessObjects Strategic Workforce Planning es la primera en procesar enormes cantidades de datos usando la computación in-memory y el empleo de un innovador motor de cálculo que permite que el procesamiento de las aplicaciones se lleve a cabo de manera directa en la memoria.

“SAP HANA y las primeras aplicaciones edificadas para correr sobre él ya están demostrando la inigualable velocidad que ofrece la computación in-memory, así como la latencia que pesa sobre las capas de sus sistemas de TI”, señaló Vishal Sikka, Miembro de la Junta Directiva y Director de Plataformas de Tecnología e Innovación de SAP AG. “Los clientes con los que estamos trabajando ya están materializando el enorme potencial que posee SAP HANA para contemplar problemas que antes no eran viables y comenzaron a replantear la manera cómo administrarán sus empresas, ahora que cuentan con la capacidad para analizar, simular y reaccionar en tiempo real”.

Desde los foros oficiales de SAP (SCN), comentan:
Hana es una nueva tecnologia de base de datos que te permitira, al menos por ahora, poder hacer queries en tiempo real de data en Business Inteligence a una velocidad muy superior a lo que actualmente se consigue, entre otras cosas esto te permitira tiempos de respuesta en base de datos si mal no recuerdo de hasta 10.000 veces menor que los actuales porque entre otras cosas por su funcionamiento por columnas y al hecho que la mayoria de las tablas estan en memoria y no en disco. Ademas por el funcionamiento y compresion utilizado podria llegar a comprimir una base de datos hasta en un 30% de su tamaño actual. SAP prevee que a futuro BW debera estar integrado en el ambiente de ERP y que este ultimo tambien tendra deberia llegar a disponer de un sistema similar lo que aceleraria las transacciones a niveles nunca antes visto, en parte tambien porque el manejador esta diseñado para poder realizar calculos directamente en la base de datos y de una vez enviar el resultado al sistema SAP lo que ayuda a decrementar los tiempos de respuesta entre otras cosas.

Como es conocido, la creacion de Cubos y los extractores en BW toman mucho tiempo y generan mucha carga en los sistemas fuente y por supuesto en los de BW, ademas que dependiendo de la cantidad de data en los sistemas fuente, la data de la base de datos en BW puede ser muy significativa, por ejemplo en el cliente en el que me encuentro la BD de BW tiene mas de 7 teras y crece todos los meses. En el caso de este tipo de empresas es bien considerable las mejoras que se pueden tener con la adopcion de Hana, pero claro esta, esto requiere una inversion fuerte tambien por lo que creo que la adopcion de esta tecnologia va a tomar un tiempo entre los clientes SAP.

Lecturas recomendadas:



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Ampliaciones SAP

Ampliaciones SAP

Qué son los Enhancement de SAP ?
Para explicarlo en un idioma funcional, en español, que todos podamos entender más o menos qué es esto de las ampliaciones o "enhancement" de SAP, bastaría con decir que son métodos de personalización al sistema SAP. Son, como la palabra lo indica, ampliaciones al sistema. 

El sistema SAP, sea el módulo que sea, tiene limitaciones y no siempre tendremos la funcionalidad que el cliente necesita. Cuando el cliente requiere cosas que, por estandar no podemos entregar (o alcanzar), tenemos que recurrir a desarrollos no-estandares (los que se denominan desarrollos zetas).  

Es aquí donde intervienen éstas ampliaciones... si bien no forman parte del estándar con el que viene el módulo, son ampliaciones desarrolladas (y avaladas) por SAP para completar determinadas funcionalidades de acuerdo a ciertos procesos lógicos que los clientes pueden llegar a requerir. 

Lo importante es entender que a traves de éstas ampliaciones, estamos introduciendo código a un estándar... por lo tanto, no se debe considerar un desarrollo propio (zeta), sino que el sistema sigue siendo estándar, con ampliación.
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FAQ: ABAP List Viewer (ALV)

[1] What is the ABAP List Viewer (ALV)?
The ABAP List Viewer is a generic tool that can be used to output data in tabular form and is increasingly used by the applications particularly as of Release 4.6C. By using the ALV, general functions are provided (for example, exporting to Excel) and it is possible to adapt the output to customized requirements (for example, sorting, filters, totals calculation).
[2] What different types of ALV are there?
ALV list: this uses the function module >> 'REUSE_ALV_LIST_DISPLAY'
Hierarchical sequential list: function module >> 'REUSE_ALV_HIERSEQ_LIST_DISPLAY'
Fullscreen grid: this uses the function module >> 'REUSE_ALV_GRID_DISPLAY'
ALV Grid Control: Methods of the class >> CL_GUI_ALV_GRID
ALV Tree: Methods of the class >> CL_GUI_ALV_TREE
In Basis Release 6.40, an object-oriented ALV wrapper is provided.  This can be used for three different types of tables.
- for simple, two-dimensional tables using the class >> CL_SALV_TABLE
- for hierarchical sequential tables (class CL_SALV_HIERSEQ_TABLE)
- for tree structures (class CL_SALV_TREE)
[3] How can the ALV be used by customers?
The methods of the class CL_GUI_ALV_GRID, which are required for an ALV grid that cannot be edited, are released for use in customer-specific programs (see also Note 695910).  The documentation is accessed in the class documentation.
The object-oriented ALV wrapper, which is provided in Basis Release 6.40, is also released for customers.  For more information, see the corresponding class documentation, as well as the sample report SALV*.
The methods of the classes CL_GUI_ALV_TREE CL_GUI_ALV_TREE_SIMPLE, CL_ALV_TABLE_CREATE and the ALV function modules are not released for use by the customer.
The class CL_ALV_TABLE_CREATE is not released.
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FAQ: SAP Query


[1] When is a conversion required?

You must perform a conversion after a release upgrade from 3.1x to Release 4.0x or higher or after a client copy if necessary.
           * After a release upgrade, proceed in accordance with Note 92124.
           * Start report RSAQUM40 after a client copy and set the "release indicator".


[2] Copying between query areas

You can call transaction SQ03 and choose the menu path "Environment" -> "Transports" to copy the query objects between query areas. You can copy queries from the standard area (client-specific) to another standard area using export/import.


[3] Finding quick views

Quick views are user-specific objects. To make a quick view generally available, you must convert it into a query. To do this, go to transaction SQ01 and select a corresponding user group. Choose the menu path "Query"->"Convert QuickView" to copy the quick view to a query that is accessible to all users in the user group. Since quickviews are client-specific objects, this function can be used only within the standard area of the query.


[4] Starting a query via a transaction

Calling a generated query source code (AQ* report) from transaction SE38 or using transaction SE93 can result in errors if the query was not generated after a change or the corresponding program was not found. Calling via the function modules described in Note 393160 avoids these errors or generates the query before the call.


[5] Assigning a query to another InfoSet (extended copy functions)

The standard copy functions of transactions SQ01 and SQ02 were extended by report RSAQCOPY. For example, you can copy an InfoSet including all dependent queries or copy a query into another InfoSet. For more information, see Note 324393.


[6] Report-report interface interface (BBS)

You can use the report-report interface to go directly from the output of the data selected by the query (sender) to the corresponding application transaction (receiver, for example VA03). The system transfers the data from the query to the selection screen that was called if possible. You can also use the query itself as a receiver for other selections. For more information, see Note 50629.


[7] Inconsistency in query objects

Changes in the ABAP Dictionary (change in field length or field type) may result in problems when generating the functional area and/or query. First adjust the InfoSet via transaction SQ02 and the menu path "InfoSet" -> "More functions" -> "Adjust". You can then adjust the query using transaction SQ01 and choosing the menu path "Query" -> "More functions" -> "Adjust".

For more information

[8] For more information about displaying technical fields using the background TECH command in the ok_code, see Note 443727.

[9] For more information about this topic, see Note 451216. 

This note provides you with an exact method of analyzing whether duplicate lines are really issued.


[10] The system has the settings: "Changes to cross-client objects are not allowed".

a) Creating or changing in the global query is not possible with this setting.  Queries and Infosets should be created in the development system or Quality assurance system and should be transported from there to the production system.
b) Infosets and queries can be created in the standard area.

[11] Queries can be called using transactions (see Note 393160). 

Only specific function modules take the role assignment (SAP_QUERY_AD_HOC_ROLE) into account. Transaction PAAH calls the function module SAP_CALL_QUERY_AD_HOC, which does not take the role assignment into account. Instead of using this transaction, you should call the Ad Hoc Query using the SAP Easy Access menu (see Note 761160).

[12] The standard selections are generated dynamically by the ABAP runtime. 

This depends on the segments of the logical database that you use. For this reason, we cannot guarantee that the additional source code is correct for each query that is based on this InfoSet. Therefore, you cannot access standard selections.

Inmortalizado desde h_tp://www.saptechies.com/faq-sap-query/ pero ya no existe!
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FAQ: Data Browser (SE16)

[1] Why does the results list of the SE16 transaction display the content of some fields differently from the detailed view?
[2] Why can I not change a table in the SE16 transaction although the table was selected as changeable in the SE11 transaction under Attributes?
[3] Why can the smallest value in the results list differ with a different value for the 'Maximum number of hits'?
[4] Which authorizations does a user require to display certain values in the SE16 transaction?
[5] How can I search for special characters?
[6] Why are texts from text tables not displayed?
[7] Why can I only create user-specific variants in the ALV list?

[1] Why does the results list of the SE16 transaction display the content of some fields differently from the detailed view?

 Examples:
Table Field Hit list display Detail view display
BSIS HKONT 0000191100 191100
MARA MEINS ST PC
T002 SPRAS b IS

Answer:Conversion exits are defined for some domains of the table fields.These are processed with each screen input or output.The default hit list is not a screen, therefore, the conversion exit is not processed.You can, however, include the exit in the processing using the 'Settings'->'List parameters' menu option.

[2] Why can I not change a table in the SE16 transaction although the table was selected as changeable in the SE11 transaction under Attributes?
Answer:
The changeability of table entries still depends on the following factors:
    - Role and changeability of the client;
    - System changeability;
    - Delivery class of the table;
    - If a maintenance view for the table exists:
    - Authorizations.
Refer to note 109083 for more information.
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FAQ: Upgrade PREPARE

1. When should I start the PREPARE?

Start the PREPARE as early as possible before the upgrade so that you can set up or carry out the necessary preparations in good time.

2. Can I repeat the PREPARE?

You can repeat most of the PREPARE modules as often as you like without resetting the entire PREPARE. You must reset PREPARE only when you make bigger changes to the source release, for example, if you import software such as SAP Support Packages, languages or add-ons (including add-on updates) after the PREPARE is started. In general, however, you should ensure that the relevant modules are completely executed before resetting the PREPARE as described in the upgrade guide. Keep in mind that resetting only changes the status for the upgrade and does not undo any PREPARE database operations.

3. Must I include Support Packages in the upgrade?

We generally recommended that you include Support Packages; otherwise, depending on the Support Package level of the source release, the system carries out a downgrading of objects. This may cause data losses and/or problems in some upgrade phases. For more information, see Notes 73510 and 119738. Furthermore, this is often the quickest method of importing Support Packages.

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FAQ: SAPScripts

How do I create Boxes in SAPScript?
You can create Boxes in the SAPScript using the BOX command specifying the x,y co-ordinates and the width and the height
BOX XPOS '0' CM YPOS '0.5' CM WIDTH '9.2' CM HEIGHT '3.5' CM FRAME 8 TW.

How do I set tabs between the fields in display?
In the Paragraph Format tab, create a new paragraph format. In the "Tabs" Tab, enter the tab position and the alignment for the fields.

How do I create standard texts for the scripts?
You can create standard texts using the transaction SO10. Then to insert these standard texts in the SAPScript choose the menu, Insert->Text->Standard and choose the standard text that you want to choose.
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FAQ: Client copy

Symptom

1. Which authorizations are required to execute a client copy?
2. Which data is actually copied with a client copy?
3. Can I only copy the Customizing and therefore receive the application data in the target client?
4. Can I copy between systems with different R/3 releases/add-ons?
5. Can I create client copies in a heterogeneous system landscape?
6. How can I improve the performance of a client copy?
7. Which is better or faster, a client transport or a remote copy?
8. How much space does the new client require?
9. Can I exclude certain tables from a client copy?
10. Where do I find the cause of an error or a copy termination?
11. How does a client copy behave during a termination or database error? When does the system offer a restart?
12. How do I create a new client? Which copy profile and which source client should I use?
13. Why does a remote copy terminate, referring to DDIC differences?
14. Why there are still differences between the systems, for instance with the programs, even after I copy with the copy profile SAP_ALL?
15. What is client 001 used for?
16. Can I delete client 001?
17. Can I use client 001 in production?
18. Can I use more than one client for production in a system?
19. After a client copy, there are problems with number ranges in the target client. Why is this?

Other terms

FAQ, Q+A, CC-INFO, CC_ADMIN, SCCL, SCC5, SCC7, SCC8, SCC9

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FAQs: Currency translation

I. Persistence of the currency translation (Tables TCUR*)

1. How are the entries of the TCURF and TCURR tables related?
The TCURR table contains only the exchange rates for the exchange rate type, the currency pair combination, and the validity date.
It is not really a customizing table at all, but an application table that is periodically maintained.
However, the exchange rates contained in table TCURR cannot be interpreted in isolation, since they always refer to a data record in factor table TCURF.
This is necessary because the exchange rates are stored in TCURR in a fixed numerical format (4 places before the decimal point, and five decimal places after the decimal point).
This storage format allows for exchange rates between 0.00001 and 9999.99999, although there are currency pairs that have exchange rates that are greater or less than this. By selecting the appropriate exchange rate factors, the system can also display these exchange rates. In this case the system does not compare a single unit of the first currency with a single unit of the second currency; instead the system displays any order of magnitude between 1 and 100,000,000 of the first currency and compares it with a single unit of the second currency, or vice-versa.
The exchange rates in TCURR always refer to the factors contained in TCURF.
The fields FFACT and TFACT for exchange rate factors are present in table TCURR, but they are of no importance.
The factors displayed in Transaction OB08 (Maintenance view of V_TCURR for exchange rate entry) are always taken from table TCURF, and not from table TCURR.

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